From: Tim Bradshaw [tim@jacksonholenet.com]
Sent: Thursday, October 02, 2003 8:32 AM
To: 'Chris Moen'
Subject: FW: Primitive Archer Magazine Newsletter
 
 

Tim Bradshaw

307-733-5681 office
tim@jacksonholenet.com
________________________

Jackson Hole Net Inc.
PO Box 6412
Jackson WY 83002
http://www.jacksonholenet.com
http://www.yellowstoneparknet..com

The Region's Leading Provider of Web Based Promotions and Services

 



From: Monroe M. Luther [mailto:Monroe@PrimitiveArcher.com]
Sent: Wednesday, October 01, 2003 7:12 PM
To: monroe@PrimitiveArcher.com

Primitive Archer Magazine

SEPTEMBER Newsletter

713-467-8202

www.primitivearcher.com                                  

God Bless America

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BACK ISSUES ON THE HISTORY OF ARCHERY:  SERIES IV

 

Vol. 9, Issue 4  Maurice Thompson the Man and Legend : Part III by Clifford Huntington

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maurice Thompson left his beloved land of the Cherokee in 1868 and arrived a short time later in Crawfordsville, Ind., “absolutely penniless.” His decision to study the professions paid its first dividend when he applied with the railroad for a place and was hired as a civil engineer by John Lee, a section contractor on the I.B.&W. His skills and education were such that he soon advanced to the position of chief engineer. Not only did John Lee provide Maurice a job, he would later give his eldest daughter, Alice R. Lee, in marriage to young Thompson. After the railroad work played out, Maurice opened a law practice in Crawfordsville and enjoyed a modest amount of success, but a literary career was still alive and well in his mind. As success and its financial rewards came to Maurice, more time was available for archery and writing. Maurice resumed his habit of adventuring into wild places to experience and study the natural, traveling back to the Georgia mountains and down into the Florida wilds, familiar haunts from past hunts.

A scarf of dove-grey cloud hung on the shoulder of mountain beyond where Sims had told me the still-house, doubtless an illicit one, was hidden. To be perfectly frank, I know that the law did not sanction such a manufacturing establishment; indeed, I had had to use some powerful letters of introduction in order to gain admission to the Pocket; but I had no thought of studying the secrets of mountain-dew distilling. I cared only for the log-cocks and a few days of solitude.

You will understand my enthusiasm if words may train it upon you; for I had come 700 miles by rail; driven in a wagon 46 miles more, then walked nine miles to where I now stood. And my equipment vouched my sincerity, though my appearance had not impressed Ben Sims favorably at first blush.

‘I reckon ye know yer own business,’ he had remarked; ‘but ye look to me adzactly like er dern fool.’

And likely enough I did both know my business and look a trifle as he said. The point of view, at least, deserves respect. Besides, a man dressed in loose corduroy trousers and sleeve-jacket, with a pack on his back and a fore-and-aft cap on his head, a large quiver of arrows at his belt and a bow in his hand, is an object to be wondered at anywhere, and especially in the lone places of the Cherokee Georgia hills. But this was not my first outing of the sort; many a time before then I had shot with the bow over choice out-of-the-way places by field and flood; hence my anticipations.

Appletons’ Journal showed an interest in Maurice’s nature essays and began publishing his material in 1872. They were received well, and one followed another until he published his first archery essay, “The Long-Bow,” in April 1873. In May 1874, Maurice and Will (Will had moved to Crawfordsville shortly after his brother) formed an archery club, the Wabash Merry Bowmen. As with many organizations, enthusiasm initially reigns and then interest languishes, soon reducing the numbers to a few dedicated souls. Such was the case with this group from Crawfordsville, until one bright afternoon, only three hardy individuals were left to answer roll call, Captain H. H. Talbott, Will H. Thompson and Maurice Thompson. They assumed the name of the Three Merry Bowmen and in the beginning existed solely for the purpose of shooting game with the longbow and arrows.

They never indulged in the more formal target archery, “being quite ignorant of the theory and practical details of Archery as a game.” According to Maurice, “...shooting at game in the fields and woods (by ‘flood and field’) is as different from target shooting as day is different from night. The bright rings of a target are a snare and a delusion to the greenwood archer.”

One of Maurice’s most popular and lasting essays was published in September 1875, “Three Weeks Of Savage Life,” a fortnight spent with Tommy the Indian in Florida. Most who read the edited version Maurice compiled in The Witchery of Archery, assume it occurred during the period after the Civil War when Maurice and Will hunted Florida. An evaluation of the evidence Maurice presents; equipment mentioned, the fact he had been planning the affair for some time and the type and amount of provisions purchased, supports the conclusion this event occurred after Maurice moved to Indiana. The Maurice Thompson who hunted with Tommy was fairly well-to-do, not an impoverished, recently paroled Confederate veteran. The hunting trip with Tommy was likely combined with Maurice’s second exploration of the Lake Okeechobee region.

Maurice’s stock rose in July 1877 with the publication of “Hunting With The Longbow” in Harper’s and “Bow Shooting” in Scribner’s; but not without some criticism.

And he, whose highest idea of game quality in beast or bird, after its toothsomeness, is that it should sit still and be shot at till hit, says, “No man ought to brag of knocking down two quail left and right under the ordinary circumstances of field shooting, with a double-barreled shotgun!” The men who can do this with any certainty have, in my humble opinion, a right to brag, but they seldom do. They surely would not boast of killing a half grown turkey by a chance shot, nor of hitting a squirrel on a tree at the tenth trial. He says, furthermore, that “with a good shotgun, no man ought ever to miss a quail, at 30 yards! Yet better shots with the gun than he can ever hope to be with the bow, do so miss them. Were shooting with the gun the “dead sure” thing he claims it ought to be, there would indeed be little sport in it – it would be sheer slaughter. But the scores of crack shots will hardly average more than three hits in five shots at birds on the wing. A fairly good rifleman would knock the heads off our bowman’s accommodating woodpeckers and tomtits at double his distances nine times out of ten, but we should hardly call it sport.

Archery’s rising popularity fueled a friendly controversy between the Three Merry Bowmen and a group of riflemen, known as the Montgomery Scouts, another Crawfordsville based club. These crack riflemen were headed by the well-known and celebrated marksman, General Lew Wallace (General Wallace would later gain international acclaim with the publication of the novel “Ben-Hur” in 1880). Maurice and his archery enthusiasts had been promoting the merits of the bow and had dared to infer the bow could be made to compete successfully with the rifle under rules of tournament shooting. Maurice, ever loyal to the English longbow, issued a challenge to General Wallace for a shooting match at 10 o’clock on Tuesday, October 23, 1877, in the Dry Branch Bottom near Crawfordsville.

The two teams were selected with the riflemen being represented by General Wallace, Frank Snyder and Edward Voris and the archers represented by Maurice Thompson, Will H. Thompson and Captain H. H. Talbott. A meeting was arranged between the two groups and the following rules of engagement were established. Each group was to shoot three rounds of 30 shots at a 4-foot target with a 9-inch gold. Archers would shoot at 20 yards while the riflemen shot at 100 yards; archers would shoot at 30 yards and rifleman at 200 yards with archers shooting their final round at 40 yards and riflemen at 200 yards. The result of the contest showed the archers out scoring the riflemen at each distance. General Wallace and Maurice Thompson produced the highest scores for each’s respective group with Maurice outscoring the General. Though victorious, Maurice was not impressed with their scores and blamed it on a change of equipment.

In hunting, most of our shooting had been at short range, with broad-headed arrows, whose feathers were the full width of the larger side of goose-wing vanes, and whose steles were more than a third of an inch in diameter. Changing from this to the slender 4-6 English target arrows was what caused our poor shooting at the match with the rifles.

Less than a year later, on July 17, 1878, The Witchery of Archery was published, forever immortalizing Maurice Thompson in the hearts of archers the world over. Unlike Maurice’s first book, The Witchery of Archery experienced excellent reviews.

This is a handsome volume, made up of Mr. Thompson’s contributions to the magazines. The articles in Scribner’s and Harper’s descriptive of the sport to be had with the long bow, and the great degree of skill to be attained with that implement, have given a notable impulse to the game. It is not a matter of any great surprise that the result should have been as it was. A better audience, both in intelligence and numbers, than is afforded by the readers of these two most popular of American magazines could not be asked by the most ardent advocate of creed or pastime. That immediately after the appearance of his enthusiastic sketches Mr. Maurice and his publishers should have been overwhelmed with letters from every part of the world was nothing to be wondered at. It was just what writer and publisher might have expected. Mr. Thompson may be accorded all the credit of the revival of the sport in the United States. The book now before us will doubtless increase this interest, besides being welcomed as, in a more convenient form, containing the combined charms of the scattered magazine article.

A meeting of Archery Societies held in the office of John W. Ramsey, Mayor of the City of Crawfordsville, Ind., January 23, 1879, spawned the National Archery Association with Maurice Thompson as its first President. The First National Archery Association Championship was announced to be held in Chicago on the 12th, 13th and 14th of August, 1879.

Maurice, always with his ear to the ground when it came to earning a buck, released the 2nd Edition of “The Witchery of Archery” on February 17, 1879, with an added chapter on English archery practice. This edition was quickly exhausted and in June, Maurice and Will released “How To Train In Archery,” a complete manual on long-range bow shooting. Both books being conveniently released prior to the Championship.

August rolled around and 54 gentlemen and 20 ladies officially attended the First National Archery Association National Championship in Chicago. Although Will was recovering from an illness that had prevented practice prior to the meet and left him in a weakened state, he easily outdistanced the field for the Championship. Maurice, suffering from an injury to his shoulder gamely shot through and finished in the seventh position. On the ladies’ ledger, Maurice and Will’s mother-in-law, Mrs. John Lee finished second, and Mrs. Maurice Thompson finished in the 14th spot.

The 1st Annual Meeting of the National Archery Association was held January 28, 1880, and Maurice relinquished his title as President to Henry C. Carver. Will continued an active role and appeared in a number of National Championships; Maurice continued to support the N.A.A., but chose to champion archery from a different front.

Give me a fortnight of freedom in the woods of spring, and I will find a freshness infinitely changeable, an originality varying with every puff of the breeze. Give me an outing; you might as well, for otherwise I shall take it by force; I must have it. And what is an outing in the green woods to him who bears not the longbow?Now, if you ask why the longbow is to be lugged in, I answer, because. It goes, or I stay. I would rather delve at my desk, with the good yew unstrung standing there in the corner beside the ancient tall clock, than to undertake a ramble in the hill-country without that trusty monochord across my arm. We have been boon companions these many years, my bow and I, and it is now too late for a change of relation; we go together into green solitudes and find the places where Diana's footprints are yet almost visible, the spot, still warm, where Pan took his noonday nap.

By 1884 Maurice had closed his law practice and immersed himself full time in writing. Free from the restraints of his law practice, he developed a routine that allowed him to summer in the Traverse Bay, Michigan area and winter in the Bay St. Louis, Miss., region. It as well freed him to spend more time in favorite haunts with longbow in hand, and he began publishing what I consider, some of his finest archery material. One in particular, “An Archer in the Cherokee Hills,” so impressed Walther Buchen that he privately published it and distributed it to friends in a limited edition of 25 numbered copies. This scarce printing is one of archery memorabilia collectors’ most sought after pieces.

I published this article in book form because my bow-and-arrow-hunting companion, Captain Cassius Styles, had told me about the article in the “Atlantic” and how delightfully it was written. At the time, we were hunting mountain lion with the bow and arrow in the coast ranges of Oregon.

For those who have never read this essay, I include the closing paragraphs to whet the appetite and provide cause to search it out and savor Maurice Thompson at his best.

After a certain period spent in the woods, sometimes three days, sometimes three weeks, the romance of it cloys, falls stale. I am as eager to get back to my desk as I was to go away from it. I have eaten enough ambrosia; give me once more the solid diet of workaday life. But I bring back with me from the lonely places something, I know not what, like a smack of wild honey, that sweetens my memory for a year, or until another outing comes round. And so, taking leave of the notes from which this sketch is drawn, I fling one of them back over my shoulder, a Parthian shaft whizzing from a thicket beyond Toccoa and Tallulah. Here it is: —“May 19. Made a pretty shot this morning. It was from behind a rock on a hillside. Shot across a ravine and hit a young hare. The rock was in a thicket of blackberry and other bushes. As I stepped in the hare bolted out, ran down into the ravine and up the other side to a point opposite. It was a tangled place to shoot from; but I dared not move for fear of losing the main chance. Let drive, the briers tearing the back of my bow-hand. Centre drop. Clipped him behind the ears. “El pauvre lapin, I have already eaten him!”

Maurice had a fondness for the youth of this country and provided many articles on the outdoor way for periodicals catering to young people. Wonderful old magazines such as, Harper’s Young People, St. Nicholas and The (Chicago) Inter Ocean. He edited and supplied several chapters for the Boys’ Book of Sports, a general compilation of articles past published in St. Nicholas, as well as some new material.

All boys can not become successful naturalists, or explorers, or writers, or artists, or specialists in other lines, but all can reasonably enjoy and improve life; all can round out and mature character in the best lines. Believing in the maxim “A good boy makes a good man,” the editor has tried to put into this book the helpfulness of a cheerful spirit and the freshness and purity of an outdoor atmosphere, so that those who read may feel the influence of wind, and sun, and water, of woods and of birds.

From 1884 forward Maurice was a virtual whirlwind of activity, traveling, adventuring and writing. Most of the time a favored English longbow was within reach. Maurice left a legacy of some 25 books and more than 900 published essays, articles, letters and poems, and it is archers who have kept his memory alive and for good reason. Maurice was not the first European American to engage and promote archery in American; The United Bowmen of Philadelphia [1828] generally get that credit. But, he was the first to promote archery on the outside, in contrast to The United Bowmen, who restricted their archery within the Club and had no interest in taking it public.

It is impossible to imagine the direction American archery might have taken without Maurice Thompson, and I’ll not bore you with playing “what if?”. But, I will challenge you to go beyond The Witchery of Archery, for there is a great deal more to Maurice and his archery after than before.

Maurice Thompson died February 15, 1901, after a lengthy illness, and this year marks the 100th anniversary of his death.

Spirits that guard the woodland paths,
And lie in wait beside the streams,
Lead him where he shall find anew
Green meadows, and his morning dreams!


More articles are available from Primitive Archer magazine. To order the issue this article appeared in (Vol 9, Iss 4), or to order a subscription, visit Ordering.

.

All boys can not become successful naturalists, or explorers, or writers, or artists, or specialists in other lines, but all can reasonably enjoy and improve life; all can round out and mature character in the best lines. Believing in the maxim “A good boy makes a good man,” the editor has tried to put into this book the helpfulness of a cheerful spirit and the freshness and purity of an outdoor atmosphere, so that those who read may feel the influence of wind, and sun, and water, of woods and of birds.

From 1884 forward Maurice was a virtual whirlwind of activity, traveling, adventuring and writing. Most of the time a favored English longbow was within reach. Maurice left a legacy of some 25 books and more than 900 published essays, articles, letters and poems, and it is archers who have kept his memory alive and for good reason. Maurice was not the first European American to engage and promote archery in American; The United Bowmen of Philadelphia [1828] generally get that credit. But, he was the first to promote archery on the outside, in contrast to The United Bowmen, who restricted their archery within the Club and had no interest in taking it public.

It is impossible to imagine the direction American archery might have taken without Maurice Thompson, and I’ll not bore you with playing “what if?”. But, I will challenge you to go beyond The Witchery of Archery, for there is a great deal more to Maurice and his archery after than before.

Maurice Thompson died February 15, 1901, after a lengthy illness, and this year marks the 100th anniversary of his death.

Spirits that guard the woodland paths,
And lie in wait beside the streams,
Lead him where he shall find anew
Green meadows, and his morning dreams!


More articles are available from Primitive Archer magazine. To order the issue this article appeared in (Vol 9, Iss 4), or to order a subscription, visit Ordering.


Copyright ©2002 Primitive Archer Magazine
All rights reserved.

 

Back Issue Special! Order any back issue for only $4 each. Add $4 for shipping and handling if ordering 6 issues or less. shipping and handling free for 7 or more issues. Offer good

 

 

only in US. Canadian back issues remain $8, and foreign back issues $9, but shipping and handling is included.

 Click

www.primitivearcher.com                                  

or call 713-467-8202 or email orders@primitivearcher.com

 

 

 

 

Why Subscribe?

 

Because it is delivered right to your home or office at a cheaper price and you never miss an issue. Plus you get it two weeks earlier than the newsstands. You build your own Bowyers Bible by collecting these “How To” articles. You learn in detail about the ancient wars of history and the key historical role played by archers around the world.

 

How Do I Subscribe? Just click

 

 

 

call 713-467-8202

 

WHEN WILL I GET MY MAGAZINE?

The most recent issue of Primitive Archer Magazine was mailed to subscribers on August 15 and went on sale at bookstores and news stands on September 2. We have now completed a transition period in order to serve you better with two regular hunting season issues. 

NEW SCHEDULE

Subscribers   Book Stores & News        

August 15         September 2

November 15   December 1

February 15      March 1

May 15              June 1

 

For ad rates or inquiries contact Ernie at

ads@primitivearcher.com

713-467-8202   

 

 

 

Shoots, Knap-Ins & Rendezvous

To view the calendar for any month or add your own event, please click on http://www.primitivearcher.com/cgi-bin/calendar/long_calendar.cgi

email

marie@primitivearcher.com

 

This Month’s Events

 

October 3

2nd Annual River Rats Muzzleloaders Fall Rendezvous
October 3-5
Troy Grove, Illinois
Participants much be camped and in pre-1840 attire to take part in any events
primitive camping only
primitive archery match among the events planned

Mike Rigazio
815-224-3378
drawknif@theramp.net

Mark Nelson
815-246-9037
jn0821@aol.com

Wrightwood Knap-In
October 3-5
site to be determined
Wrightwood, California

Alton Safford Phone: 760-249-5045

KANSAS KNAP-IN AT MAXWELL WILDLIFE REFUGE
Oct. 3-4
Maxwell Wildlife Refuge
located 6 miles north and 1 1/2 miles west of Canton, KS
The event will be held in conjunction with the Friend's of Maxwell Fall Rendezvous
Non period tents will have a separate camping
The elk are usually bugling this time of the year, and the buffalo are always observable

For more information call Friend's of Maxwell at 620-628-4455
Randy Clark at 316-683-8069 (w)
620-543-6584 (h)

October 4

4th Annual Crowley's Ridge Black Powder Rendezvous
October 4th & 5th
Location: 1.4 miles south of Bloomfiled, MO. on Hwy 25
across from the Stars and Stripes Museum

Contact: Tom Boner 573-293-4369
Randy Yancey 573-624-6290
lazyy@semo.net
Rifle-Knife & Hawk-Fire Start-Novelty Competition Prizes to be awarded

The European Championships of Prehistoric Throwing Weapons
October 4-5
St. Marcel, France

for more informations you can contact>br>christian.lepers@swde.be. or elegies@wanadoo.fr
Pierre Lansac
http://perso.wanadoo.fr/archeries/

The Trappers of Starved Rock 30th Annual October Shoot and Rendezvous
October 4-5
St. Louis, Missouri
Historical Sioux Passage Park in North St. Louis County
Description: The Trappers of Starved Rock & St. Louis County Parks & Recreation
Invite you to attend the 30th Annual October Shoot & Rendezvous
In Historical Sioux Passage Park in North St. Louis County
On the Missouri River where Lewis & Clark Journeyed!
Seven miles from the confluence of the two rivers
4 miles from Famous Fort Belle Fontaine
Located on Old Jamestown Road, just off Vaile
Fees Rifles & Flint, Smoothbore Rifles-Period Dress.$12.00
Sat-10:00 a.m. till 3:00 p.m.
Non-Period Dress...$15.00
Sun-9:00 a.m. till 2:00 p.m.
Flint smoothbore..$10.00
Post Shoot - Saturday 4:00 PM
All campers & traders must register
Registration will close Sunday at 11:00 AM!

For more information
Booshway: Terry McCarty
(636) 928-4885
tmccarty@mail.win.org
http://www.geocities.com/trappersofstarvedrock/page32.html

October 5

That's Not a Long Bow
October 5
10am-???
Sponsored by Bromley Archery Club
Whitefoot Lane Playing Fields
(Entrance on Downderry Road)
Bromley
BR1 4RL
Description: Our Third Thats Not A Longbow Shoot for Primitive, Strainght Stave and Composite Bows.
No shooting aids, please.
Awards will be given, including prizes for all Juniors.
Call or email for more details.

matt@voicetape.com
020 8857 9036

Bakersfield Monthly Knap-in
Bakersfield, California
Hart Memorial Park
first sunday of every month
one day even from 10:00am-5:00pm
for more info. contact Gary Pickett 661-392-7729
air-o-head@webtv.net
Sherry Pauley 661-392-7063
webmaster@opalvalley.com

October 10

New York State Muzzleloaders Primitive Rendezvous
October 10-18
Moose River Recreation Area, New York

Contact: Kevin Hite
14 Tower Rd.
Wyoming, NY 14591
(716) 495-6179
Other Contact: Tim Welch
P.O. Box 202 Elbridge, NY 13060
(315) 689-3058
Pre 1840 only
NYS Big Game license and Muzzleloader permit required to hunt
E-Mail-->grungeguy40@hotmail.com

Knap-in @ Pairie Haynes Ranch
October 10-12
Killeen, Texas
some lodging and meals available

contact Bill Metcalf
254-634-3264

WHITE RIVER KNAP-IN
October 10-12<BR
Enjoy watching Jim Redfearn and Ron Fuller chip
Take part in the blanket trade and raffle

For more information call Greg Foulk
870-445-2190

October 11

Candor Fall Festival Atlatl Contest and Hunt
October 11-12
Fallow Hollow Deer Farm - Candor, New York
Fallow deer atlatl hunt and ISAC both days

Contact: Bob Berg. (607) 659-5967 or 1-800-836-4520

The European Championships of Prehistoric Throwing Weapons
October 11-12
Bougon, France

for more informations you can contact>br>christian.lepers@swde.be. or elegies@wanadoo.fr
Pierre Lansac
http://perso.wanadoo.fr/archeries/

October 15

Sespe Rendezvous
October 15-19
Rose Valley, California

Contact: Helen Haverly
99 Mara Ventura, CA 93004
805) 647-1976
Other Contact: Charlie Bates
340 Foxglove Oxnard, CA
(805)485-8917
E-Mail: ehaverly@aol.com

October 16

Howard County Muzzleloaders Rendezvous
October 16-19
Vealmore Texas
Go north on hwy 87
8 miles turn right 12 miles to Vealmore at Vealmore turn right go 4 miles turn left thru cattle guard
about a mile turn left you can see camp
bring Water, wood is available

for more information call
Connie 915-267-6697.

October 17

CLINCH RIVER PRIMITIVE SKILLS KNAP-IN AND ATLATL THROW
Oct. 17-19
Located just south west of Knoxville, TN
Near the town of Lenoir City
Atlatl ISAC throws each day
Flintknapping and lots of other primitive skills demonstrated daily

Contact Phillip Davis: 865-988-8064
James Gibson: 865-577-4430 for a flier and directions. http://www.home.earthlink.net/~clinchriverknapin/

October 18

Pacfic Northwest Traditional Shoot
October 18-19
Eugene, Oregon

Bob
541/461-0225

October 19

Conejo Valley Archer's Country Classic Novelty Shoot
California
October 19
for more information call 818-893-4145

October 24

Cedar Hill Boo Voo Halloween Rendezvous
October 24-26
Urbana, Missouri

Contact: Deborah Canup
2203 HWY AC
Urbana, MO 65767
417 993-0243
Other Contact: Joe Canup
A great way to enjoy Ozark Mountains beautiful fall colors, primative style
Activities include the famous 'Ghost Walk'(can see the target, where's the sights) Shoot, 'Flaming Hawk' Throw, 'Wild Animal' Bow Shoot, Pumpkin Carving and Primitive Constume Contest, Apple Bobbin, new this year 'Squirrel Hunt', Potluck Dinner
E-Mail-->ozrkmtct@yahoo.com

October 31

DoggClannMuzzleloaders Fall Rendezvous
October 31-November 2
Darlington Beaver County, Pennsylvania
pre-1840 event

contact: Sheryl Davis
DoggClann Muzzleloaders
doggclannmuzzleloaders@yahoo.com
724-495-0406

 

 

 

 

We thank you for your interest and support. We are working hard to promote our sport and way of life. Please feel free to forward this free monthly newsletter to your archery friends. They can subscribe by going to

www.primitivearcher.com and clicking on the Newsletter button and entering their email address.

If however, you do not wish to receive the Primitive Archer Monthly Newsletter, respond "please take me off your list.

 

713-467-8202

www.primitivearcher.com                                  

 

 

 

 

class=MsoNormal>www.primitivearcher.com