[An intrinsic portion of the Stanley Meyer technology had inductors, chokes and coils as important components

if devices. The voltage intensifier circuits(

VIC)and the electrical particle generators (

EPG)

Many of Stanley Meyer's patents and publications provide diagrams provide the general description or have live

drawings that lack exact component values of the resistors, capacitors , coils and chokes. Fortunately the high resolution

photographs from the L3 storage unit and by Don Gabel, The Orion Project and others allow for many printed circuits

to be closely reconstructed. The following article is related to the photogrammetric analysis of coils and inductors.

The values of the capacitors and resistors is much more straightforward using programs that match color code bands on resistors

with values and OCR image data files input cross-matched with component files based on supplier catalog scans.

**METHOD 1. Determine Length of bobbin, thickness or depth of winding,/the wire gauge and method of winding** The diameter of the outermost EPG channel or loop can be estimated.at about 17 inches

Therefore the outer circumference can be estimated at 17 x Pi inches

By dividing the circumference by the observed number of coils an estimated length of each coil can be made.

A further

** refinement **in precision can be made by subtraction of the total

**length** L occupied by coil spacers.

So in the case where you count, let's say as way of example, 59 coils and 60 coil end spacers, each winding is

1/59th of the circumference of 53.4 inches or calculated at about 0.905 inches long.

**Method 2.**Because of the high resolution photographs available, estimates of a coil can be made directly.

Using a known measurement such as the outside diameter of tubing ie. 0.500 inches

in conjunction with a screen distance tool in Photoshop(r) or another program such as

Screen Caliper(r) the length of the coil can be made.

**THICKNESS**Since the outside diameter of the core channel is known, an estimate of the thickness of depth of winding

may be obtained by using photogrammetry to estimate the thickness of the winding.

The total thickness or

** height** of the wound coil is first measured. Then the core diameter is then subtracted.

the resulting figure is then divided by two. This is the height or thickness of the winding around the core

So now we have what is call a winding window with height H and length L.

H TIMES L = A the area of the winding window. Think of it a a cross-sectional view of

the coil windings with the ends of each wire being viewed.

Something like this:

IIOOOOOOOOOOOOII

IIOOOOOOOOOOOOII

IIOOOOOOOOOOOOII

representing 3 layers of wire with 12 wraps (the II symbolizing the coil dividers)

3 layers of wire by 12 wires wide or 36 turns or wraps of wire around a bobbin

IIooooooooooooooooooII

IIooooooooooooooooooII

HooooooooooooooooooII

In this exsmple, a thinner wire could be wound 18 times on the same length of bobbin.

**NUMBER OF WINDS**Since the gauge of the wire can be estimated with a good amount of precision

,the use of circle packing theory (see wiki) theory can be used to determine the

number of turns that can fit through this winding window( Area equals Height

times length.

One factor that helps, is that wires come in

** standard** thicknesses or diameters

For convenience the AWG (American Wire Gauge) is used in electrical

and electronic work, Electrical wiring in the U.S. is often 10,12 or 14AWG

Electronic work is often uses 18,22, or 30 AWG gauge wire

Whatever the reason the smaller the AWG number, the thicker or larger

the diameter of wire!!

The reason this helps in photogrammetry, is that the gauges are

**discrete** values

Look at this table:

AWG Diameter in inches AWG Diameter in Inches

10 .1019 20 .0320

12 .0808 22 .0253

14 .0641 24 .0201

16 .0508 26 .0159

18 .0403 28 .0126

30 .0101

The 16 gauge wire is about 25% thicker than 18 gauge

The 22 gauge wire is about 25% thicker than 24 gauge

Not to get too technical, but this is a logarithmic scale, but the important concept

is the

**PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GAUGES IS LARGE**in relation to the precision achievable in photogrammetry

This means for a given photogrammetric distance is it easier to pick out the exact

gauge of wire used because the precision of the that method is often less than 2 to 5%.

**PACKING FRACTION**There is a branch of mathematics which describes how many circles of uniform

size can be drawn in a given area. It goes by several names but let's just call it

Circle Packing Theory.

By determining the winding window size, the appropriate circle packing fraction can be used to

determine a close estimate of the number of windings per coil. In the previous example

cross-section of a coil, it represents one type of winding

One type of winding known as

**square** or precision winding has each layer of winding with

turns directly on top the wires in the layer beneath with no offset.

Another type is

** hexagonal** winding, with the layers arranged more like a honeycomb

And thirdly there is a

**random** type of winding with lots of crossover and gaps

The hexagonal packing is the closest or most densest method of winding coils

with a value of 0.906 or about 91% of the area occupied by wire with the

balance of the area being gaps between the wires

Square geometry winding with each winding of wire directly on top the

layer below( No offset) has a value of 0.785 It is not at close or dense

a winding as hexagonal winding.

A random wind often a more gaps but the packing ratio is highly dependent

on the

**size** of the wire relative the length and width of the winding window

Consider for a moment two equally sized sheets of sandpaper.

One is coated coarse grade grit, the other coated coated with a fine grit used for

final sanding. The arrangement of the sand grains is random in both

cases but there are fewer grain of sand on the coarse paper and

many more grains of sand on the finer grit paper.

This is analogous to the number of random winding or wraps of wire in a given

cross sectional area on a bobbin. Intuitively very small wire gauges have a

higher packing fraction than large. This is a difficult value to quantify

SO IN SOME CASES IT MAY BE POSSIBLE TO CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF TURNS

IN SOME CASES EMPIRCAL METHODS OR TEST WINDINGS MIGHT BE NECESSARY

As an example if the winding window is 1 square inch and the AWG is 22, and the tighter

** hexagonal**winding factor is used(0.906) then 0.906 square inches of that window is occupied by the area of the wire..

The cross-sectional area of AWG 22 is 0.0005 inches.

0.906/divided by 0.0005 =approx

**1800 turns** With

** precision or square** winding a factor of 0.78 can be used resulting in an estimate of

** 1560 turns** through

a 1 inch square window

**SUMMARY**Basically the application of the above method may be used to estimate the number

of windings for an EPG coil by photogrammetric means

** in some cases** A search of empirical transformer design charts might be instructive for this third case

of

**random** winding. Empirical as well as advanced computer iteration calculations

are used

**Method 3**There are on line calculators also:

https://www.daycounter.com/Calculators/Coil-Physical-Properties-Calculator.phtml**MISCELLANEOUS COMMENT**

POWER OUTPUT DEPENDS ON METHOD OF WIRING PICKUP COILSIt appears as though the mechanical drive epg was wired in parallel lower voltage and and a

higher amperage due to more coils

While the multitier EPG was higher voltage due to fewer coils and many windings which required of multiple tiers

It also could be that the effective value of the flux in the mag-gas systems was lower that the higher density ferro fluids

which might explain the need to operate at 90 ips velocity